From electronic record systems (EHR) to the Internet of Medical Things (Healthcare IoT), the digital revolution has already brought disruptive changes to the healthcare sector. Even bigger changes are on the way, thanks to advances in networking and in-memory computing. Powered by IoT, personalized medicine is creating new business opportunities for pharmaceutical drugs, medical devices, and patient services that will dramatically improve therapeutic outcomes. Digital disruption has the potential to unlock $ 100 billion in commercial value, reports Accenture. With the life sciences industry poised for change, companies that take move to capitalize on new business will gain a critical, first-mover advantage.
A more than $ 100 billion opportunity: Life science digital transformation
Life science companies that embrace digital transformation are shifting value within their industry. These companies successfully unlock new revenue streams by providing a substitute treatment or medication, enabling the sharing economy, converting healthy activities into currency, or setting new standards for treatment and personalized care monitoring. For example, Accenture reports that remote monitoring for Type 2 Diabetes has the potential to shift more than $ 100 billion in value from traditional to emerging business models.
Healthcare IoT and analytics processing are coming together to enable this digital shift. IoT uses real-time data feeds from sensors and devices to enable machine-to-machine interactions. Data is now available through remote tracking, electronic medical records, diagnostic information and hand-held personal devices. Advanced analytics processing analyses this data in real time, providing actionable insights that enhance the decision-making powers of professionals and enables patients to take a more active role in managing their personal health. These innovations are transforming not just how we care for the chronically ill, but also how we empower individual wellness and proactively work to prevent disease.
In addition to the benefits of IoT for personalized health care, IoT is also making it easier for life science companies that produce equipment or medication to proactively mitigate machine failure. This helps life sciences companies improve reliability and quality. Patients benefit from a responsive supply chain and companies benefit from efficiency gains that lower production costs.
IoT digital transformation in action: Cold chain supply for biologics and smart pills
The impact of IoT on the life science industry is significant, particularly in terms of how these businesses interact with their B2B customers and, even more importantly, their consumers. Cold chain supply for biologics and consumer smart pills are two examples of how IoT is improving therapeutic outcomes through personalized medicine.
Cold chain supply for biologics
Pharmaceutical companies that manufacture environmentally sensitive drugs face several key challenges. First, these manufactures need to improve the safety and efficacy of drug production. Second, these companies are working to reduce theft and lost drugs. Finally, these companies are seeking to reduce incidental spoilage and decrease inventory requirements. IoT tracking and sensors addresses these key challenges.
By 2020, IDC predicts that more than half of all top-selling drugs will be biopharmaceutical or biologic products requiring temperature controlled transportation and storage, usually 2–8°C, but sometimes frozen or cryogenic. This requires a huge network of time/temperature sensors in factories, warehouses, trucks, labs, and pharmacies that can monitor and send this information, for both clinical trial supplies and approved products. IoT tracking sensors and networks help life sciences companies ensure the safety and efficacy of their products in transit and in storage. Investment in cold chain IoT networks will be driven by safety and compliance concerns; these investments will also contribute to savings from lower inventory and spoilage costs.
Smart pill for personalized medicine
Health care providers struggle with prescription non-adherence, especially among patients with chronic diseases. Since patients are reluctant to tell their health care providers that they are not taking their medications, the American Medical Association reports that providers may needlessly escalate treatment. IoT powered innovations like the “smart pill” may improve patient compliance. Key benefits include maximizing drug effectiveness, reducing medical costs due to improper drug usage and decrease incidental spoilage and supply chain waste.
The Proteus pill by Proteus Digital Health contains a tiny ingestible sensor that can communicate to a wearable patch on a patient’s skin when the pill has reached the patient’s stomach. The patch then sends a status update to a mobile device. The technology can be helpful for conditions where adherence to taking prescriptions has traditionally been poor. Related technology includes “smart” pill bottles that can send signals to portable devices when opened or altered, thereby improving safety and reducing fraud.
Three steps to prepare your life science company for digital transformation
Innovate or be left behind: digital transformation is contemporary imperative for today’s life sciences companies. Whether a scenario can be implemented now or in the future, your company must have the right technology and IT infrastructure in place. Otherwise, your company risks losing out on first-mover advantage. These three steps will position your business for success:
Conduct a risk-benefit assessment. Define strategic and tactical goals, including high-level benchmarks against key industry competitors, both traditional and emerging. Align efforts with customer needs, key business goals, and the likelihood of market disruptions.
Be “digital ready.” Start modernizing systems and business processes in alignment with future opportunities.
Form strategic partnerships. Identify the partnership ecosystem that can best support your business on its path towards digital transformation.
Taking these steps today will prepare your life science company to capitalize on the disruptive IoT innovations that are essential for the next generation of personalized medicine.
Over the past few years, tech tinkerers have raised many a shudder with home-made connected devices designed to spook unwary visitors. You can create a connected pumpkin patch with little more than an Arduino and some motion sensors, if you know what you’re doing. And thanks to the rise of home automation devices, even relative technophobes can turn a living space into a haunted (smart) house without too much bother. All you really need is a hidden Google Home that will play spooky sound effects with nothing more complicated than a voice command.
A DIY haunted house is all very well, so far as it goes. But surely the cutting edge of the IoT can come up with something more? More than motion-triggered jack-o-lanterns and smart lighting? Something more…oh…personal?
A personalized Halloween experience is something that might appeal to enterprising amusement park managers. It’s easy to see the draws of an attraction that is fully and automatically customizable. That means it’s as fit for teeny tricksters of the child-shaped variety as it is for hardened, scare-proof adults. It might seem surprising. But with machine learning and artificial intelligence driving ever-more personalized consumer experiences, such a notion might be closer to reality than we think.
Personalized horror: set your own spook levels
Imagine for a moment a ‘haunted house’ attraction, complete with multiple scary offerings. That means you can choose which horrors to present to which people. Those who are harder to scare get the R-rated stuff. Others see only the milder exhibits.
To help determine who should see what, you could have different colour-coded, connected wrist bands. Those would then correspond to different spook levels, from 1-10, say. Yellow bands signal someone who would prefer their horror on the mild side. Blue bands are for mid-rangers. Red bands are for the fearless.
Inside, the various exhibits would operate on a sliding scale. The self-moving mummy is at level 5. The shrieking banshee is a 7. The light-up gingerbread house with cackling witch is a 3. Depending on the thresholds set by the wristbands, only experiences that fell below that threshold would be activated. Bingo – fun for all the family.
Ramping it up: a fully automated experience
Of course, you could go even further with a fully automated experience. You could create one that evolves around the reactions of each person. Responses happen in real time, based on their facial expressions, or elevated heart rates.
Here’s how it might work: you enter the haunted house wearing a connected wristband that measures your heart beat. That information is sent in real time to a centralized platform that manages the exhibits. Connected surveillance cameras capture your facial expressions. They’re then analyzed to determine your levels of shock, fear, awe, or amusement. An axe-wielding skeleton pops out in front of you, but you’re unimpressed. Your calm demeanor and steady heart beat identify you as a cool customer, So the house unleashes fresh horror in the form of a spider dropping on your head. This time, the shock sets your pulse racing.
With each fresh experience, machine learning capabilities gain new data to help understand what leaves you cold, and what gives you a case of the heebie-jeebies. Like the Boggart in Harry Potter, who alters his shape based on what will frighten each person the most, each experience in this connected house of horrors will be unique to the one who undergoes it.
Can it really be done?
It’s fun to imagine a fully personalized, custom-made experience like this one. But is it actually possible? The short answer is: yes. Though as far as I know, no-one has actually created a connected haunted house yet. However, the capabilities are there. It’s already possible for machines to understand and interpret human emotions caught on camera, using facial recognition software and artificial intelligence. Disney famously measured how much a test audience were enjoying a film by tracking their facial expressions in real time, to identify particular highs of joy or amusement, for example.
The ability to monitor biometrics with connected devices is also alive and kicking, and present in various connected safety solutions – one of which belongs to IBM. At the Genius of Things summit in Dubai earlier this year, IBM demoed an employee safety and wellness solution that used connected protective gear to measure the wearer’s physical well-being in physically demanding work environments. Once biometric indicators such as heart rate or temperature rose above a certain level, a supervisor could intervene and remove the employee from a challenging work environment before it became dangerous.
It might be possible to adapt a solution like this for use in the entertainment business – creating carefully controlled spooky experiences that can be automatically curtailed, or reduced in intensity, before they become overwhelming. Meanwhile, of course, we still have connected jack-o-lanterns.
Today’s retail landscape is more competitive than ever. Brands have to rely and work with not only brick-and-mortar chains, but with websites around the world, many of which operate on thinner margins. Brands that are trying to break through are facing an increasingly difficult disrupted marketplace, where new competitors seem to appear almost every day.
Meanwhile, an array of new technologies enable brands to deliver personalized experiences to millions of individual customers in real time. Analytics, both on the web and in-store, provide detailed insights on customers’ interests and purchase patterns, along with increasingly accurate predictions about what they’re likely to buy next month. Brands and retailers are leveraging this data to streamline their sales funnels, achieving greater efficiently every year.
In this increasingly competitive marketplace, personalized customer experiences are no longer just a nice bonus. They’re the only thing preventing your customers from switching to another brand that seems to understand them better. With a tremendous amount of money being spent getting foot traffic in stores, personalized experiences can be used to point consumers towards desired products, in hopes of making a sale. Here’s how visual experiences can enable more engaging experiences, more empowered sales teams, and an improved bottom line for your brand.
Personalized, connected, data smart experiences
Data comes from a wide range of sources – and ideally, you should be gathering it from all your store’s touchpoints. Interactions on the web, on mobile, and in brick-and-mortar stores can all combine to create customer insights you’d never have gotten from any single source. Add in volunteered data from loyalty programs, and you’ve got all the resources you need to build robust, 360-degree view of your store.
These deep customer insights enable you to deliver more tailored advertising, orchestrating continuously improved customer journeys that span all digital and physical touchpoints. Instead of showing all your customers the same ads, you’ll be able to show offers related to their individual tastes and preferences – both on the web and in your stores. This kind of interactive signage gets more than twice the engagement rate of social media and 24 percent more dwell time than Google’s benchmark.
Beyond advertising, these robust customer insights will enable you to provide best-in-class sales tools to your employees. The latest generation of in store technologies are helping sales associates get to know their customers via opt-in loyalty programs, allowing them to greet customers by name, purchase anywhere, make recommendations to customers, anticipate customer demand and optimize supply chain to meet demand.
With more informed salespeople comes faster, more streamlined, and personalized service. When your customers feel empowered to begin the purchase process on their own devices – and your sales staff can pick up and complete that process at the point of conversion – you’ll see shorter lines, faster checkouts, and smoother flow of foot traffic throughout your store. Since employees will be able to concentrate more on personal customer service, customers will leave happier than ever.
Raising your bottom line
Longer dwell time and shorter lines are all well and good – but how do all these changes perform in terms of return on investment (ROI)? Strikingly well, in fact. Personalized experiences have been shown to contribute to increased revenue and reduced loss in a variety of complementary ways.
Digital signage can also pick up on trends, demographics, patterns, and provide detailed analytics, allowing retailers to better decide how to promote certain items. With this data, retailers can better decide how to spend their advertising dollars. This creates targeted content that has a much better chance at effectively reaching the consumer, ultimately leading to a sale. This can all be done in real time, allowing retailers to minimize waste and spend money when and where it counts.
Personalized experiences are powerful tools for transforming unique spaces into new revenue streams. You could even transform your parking lots into showcases where customers can interact with personalized displays which can help draw them into your store. This may lead to new opportunities in capturing revenue by using these spaces to place digital signage, capture ad revenue and target an untapped audience.
Messaging at the right time is also crucial. Most customers perform their own product research, both at home and in-store. But when shopping in a store, a full 90 percent of shoppers make at least one impulse purchase per trip – often driven by ads or reviews they see on digital signs while at the store.
The more data you’re able to bring together from all channels, the more personalized experiences you’ll be able to serve up at the exact moment when each customer is most likely to consider a purchase. And along the way, your interactive displays will be gathering even more data on your customers’ preferences and behavior, so you can create more targeted, effective outreach, leading to a positive impact on the bottom line.
Mobility has been the lifeblood of modern civilization. Throughout the 20th century, autos and the auto industry propelled human development, bringing unrivaled utility and flexibility to the way people move. The automobile forever altered urban and suburban landscapes, and the auto industry emerged as one of the largest sectors of the world economy. Yet the industry — which survived the Great Depression, two world wars, and a two-peaked oil “crisis” — now faces fundamental disruption.
Relentless urbanization has left many cities with crippling congestion and unhealthy air pollution, and cars are wearing out their welcome in most. Modern urbanites, weaned on omnipresent connectivity, have also altered their patterns of living: Vehicle ownership is yielding to mobility accessibility as expectations and aspirations change. These trends have led a growing number of thought leaders both within and outside the auto industry to assert that radical transformation is imminent. Nissan’s Europe chairman, Paul Willcox, worries that automakers are facing “a decade of disruption.”1
We postulate that urban mobility is transforming to a connected, heterogeneous, intelligent, and personalized architecture (CHIP). A CHIP mobility architecture makes room for automakers, technologists, city planners, and entrepreneurs to innovate and proliferate new travel modes and solutions, enhancing variety, options, and utility for users. CHIP mobility leverages the power of networked systems based on connections linking physical infrastructure with digital tools to reduce travel cost, time, and effort. Intelligent systems that can access data on user preferences, traffic congestion, prices, and weather, for example, will help promote efficiency and deliver personalized user experiences. Mobility can be delivered as a service — available on tap to suit the consumer’s need at the time. Nations and cities can shape their unique architectures through investments, policies, incentives, and fees, aligning their mobility portfolios to societal objectives.
The Winds of Change
An Urban Century
At the dawn of the 20th century, one in every six people lived in an urban location. By the end of that century, one of every two was an urbanite. And by 2050, it’s projected that as many people will live in urban areas as there were people on the planet in 2015.2
Cities are emerging as economic powerhouses and pushing their own social and environmental agendas. By 2015, urban dwellers, estimated at about 55% of the global population, contributed 85% of global GDP.3 Reflecting this economic clout and impatience with slow-moving national initiatives, Michael Bloomberg, the former mayor of New York City, says, “[Mayors] don’t have to wait for national governments or a new global climate agreement to act. They can take action today — and increasingly, they are.”4
Although urban form and mobility architectures usually have a symbiotic relationship, increasing population density has rendered most current urban mobility architectures dysfunctional. Congestion is estimated to cost local economies from about 1.5% of GDP in London to as much as 15% in Beijing.5 While a high-population-density city such as Tokyo allocates about 15% of urban land to roads, typical U.S. cities allocate between 30% and 40%.6 Cities such as Los Angeles and Beijing are discovering that building new roads and increasing highway capacity just attract more vehicles and are not solutions to eliminating congestion.
Enrique Peñalosa, a former mayor of Bogotá, Colombia, cautions that “urban mobility is peculiar and is different from other urban challenges like education or housing — it tends to get worse as societies become richer.”7 The global built-up area in cities is expected to triple in the first three decades of this century, fueled especially by those in fast-growing, emerging economies.8 In many of these regions, rising affluence and aspirations, coupled with delayed spending on transit infrastructure, result in rapid increases in the population of personal vehicles. In such cities, the mandate must be to invest more aggressively in the fundamental building blocks of a sustainable city — safe pedestrian sidewalks and crosswalks, with improved connectivity to efficient mass transit — instead of building more and more roads, flyovers, and highways.
Fortunately, a growing number of communities across the globe, ranging from Singapore to Barcelona to New York City, are investing in “smart cities” in which information and communication technology infrastructures dovetail very well with future mobility architectures. Compact urban forms, with mixed-use pedestrian- and bicycle-friendly neighborhoods supported by efficient public transit, dotted with green spaces, are topologies that conform to new urbanism principles and support efficient, connected, and eco-friendly mobility. New York City, with many of these elements, has a lower per capita ecological footprint than San Francisco, in spite of New York’s higher per capita income and colder climate.9 Los Angeles, on the other hand, with an auto-dependent, highway-intensive urban sprawl that spans 4,850 square miles, heads the list of U.S. cities with the worst traffic congestion and air pollution. Cities that are embarking on “smart city” investments have a timely opportunity to steer their trajectory toward more livable communities and more sustainable mobility.
Cleaner Air to Breathe
Transportation accounts for almost two-thirds of all crude oil consumed.10 Based on current trends, global transportation energy demand will grow by almost 50% by 2040 compared with 2012.11 In 2016, the World Meteorological Organization warned that 92% of the global population is exposed to unhealthy air.12 Just the adverse consequences of unhealthy air quality, impact to the environment, congestion, traffic fatalities, and fuel subsidies to support motorization are estimated to account for 6% to 10% of global GDP.13 Furthermore, the projections of climate-change impacts from burning more and more oil to power the needs of our economies suggest ecosystem tragedy on an unprecedented global scale over the next century.
For over four decades, automakers, pushed by regulatory bodies, have been addressing the dual issues of fuel efficiency and vehicular emissions. Yet the rapidly growing car population has overwhelmed these advances. By 2016, there were more than 1.1 billion cars on the planet — almost as many as the number of people who inhabited the planet when Karl Benz invented the automobile. Even though California has the toughest emission standards in the United States, Los Angeles is plagued with the worst air quality among large U.S. cities. Similarly, France has some of the toughest standards in Europe, yet Paris is obliged to impose restrictions on vehicle use in city center areas to mitigate air pollution. As much as we can be proud of the progress made, we are still moving too slowly to avert further adverse consequences.
Changing Cultures and Attitudes to Mobility
Since the new millennium, society’s unique love affair with automobiles has shown signs of weariness. Even as emerging economies are rushing headlong toward motorization, the fraction of the population that are registered drivers is shrinking in most industrialized nations, and levels of car ownership are declining.14 These trends are fueled by several factors.
Between 1950 and 2014, the cost of the median automobile in the United States climbed from 45% to 60% of a family’s annual income. Yet, the average car, retailing in the United States for about $ 33,000, is typically used for less than 4% of its lifetime.15 The idling of such an expensive asset makes poor economic sense. Costs for registering and operating a car have also climbed. In Japan, where many cities manage high population densities and car ownership is notoriously expensive, travel by personal car declined by almost a quarter between 1990 and 2010.16 Besides economics, personal vehicle ownership and use is declining for other reasons. In many communities, smartphones — not personal vehicles — have become the “must-have” device and serve as the primary gateway to mobility and human interaction. Many urbanites now prefer to be a user of services rather than an owner of assets when it comes to automobiles.
“Mobility as a service” represents a paradigm shift. Thanks to entrepreneurship, smartphone apps, and ubiquitous connectivity, the sharing economy has blossomed, delivering a world where one can share a weekend villa through Airbnb, rent an evening dress from Rentez-Vous, and, yes, borrow a car from Turo. A variety of solutions including UberPOOL and BlaBlaCar promote ride sharing, helping to save money and carbon emissions. Car sharing through short-term rentals, by the hour or just for the ride, are offered by Zipcar, car2go, DriveNow, and their peers. Smartphone-equipped netizens in emerging economies like China and India are also climbing aboard this platform almost as quickly as those in car-saturated economies.
These trends are rapidly converging into a disruptive storm poised to transform traditional mobility. The auto industry accounts for annual revenues of more than $ 3.5 trillion — if the auto industry were a nation, it would rank fourth in GDP.17 The extended industry offers employment to more than 50 million people.18 But to thrive in the new environment, it will need to radically transform its raison d’être. Ford Motor Co.’s chairman, Bill Ford, is vocal about the need for the auto industry to change perspective, stating, “ensuring the freedom of mobility requires us to continually look beyond the needs of today and interpret what mobility will mean to future generations.”19
The Innovation Response
Invention and adaptation are key to human evolution. Therefore, it is no surprise that innovation, entrepreneurship, and enlightened public administration underpin our proposal for CHIP mobility systems.
Heterogeneity: A Smorgasbord of Modes and Solutions
Cars used to be the quickest and most convenient mode of travel. In many cities, this is no longer true. City administrators are increasingly seeing value in the growing variety of modes that can be rendered attractive and efficient for users. When these modes are effectively connected and networked, their utility is further magnified.
The Chinese philosopher Laozi, a contemporary of Confucius, observed that “a journey of a thousand miles starts with a single step.” Indeed, residents of London, Tokyo, and New York may undertake a journey to the opposite hemisphere with a short walk to the nearest subway station. Some cities, including Seoul, South Korea, and Boulder, Colorado, are building attractive pedestrian walkways out of disused railway corridors, turning once-neglected areas into vibrant places for human activity. Fully 24% of commuters in London walk to work, while 45% do so in Hong Kong. Fitbits and other wearable health monitors, as well as pedestrian-oriented navigation apps like Walc, further promote interest in walking and a healthier lifestyle. Furthermore, safe, convenient walking infrastructure promotes use of public transit when pedestrian connectivity is designed into the system.
The term “Copenhagenize” is used to denote a community that has effectively inducted bicycles into its mobility architecture. Over 45% of Copenhagen’s commuters bike to their destinations. The Danish capital has adopted a goal of carbon neutrality by 2025 and estimates that the city saves 23 cents for every bike kilometer and loses 16 cents for every car kilometer.20 In Europe, over 50% of trips are less than 5 kilometers. Consequently, in the short time since the introduction of bike-sharing services, bicycle use in London has doubled, while in Paris they have contributed to a drop in vehicle ownership by residents.21
Travel over longer distances demands other solutions. In cities such as London, Paris, and Rome, a growing number of motorcycles and motor scooters are used not only by students and young adults but also by bankers, lawyers, and other professionals. Traveling between gridlocked lanes and exploiting authorized use of restricted bus lanes earn them faster commutes — and they enjoy more flexible parking options. Anticipating customer desires for smaller vehicle footprints, some automakers are experimenting with two-seater microcars, such as Renault’s Twizy and Toyota Motor Corp.’s i-Road in some European cities. Typically, these vehicles are electric-powered and zero-emission and employ most of the modern e-connectivity features used in traditional cars. Autonomous microcar concepts such as the LUTZ Pathfinder, developed by the U.K. government and UK-based RDM Group, and the EN-V, developed by General Motors Corp. and Segway Inc., are being evaluated to serve shared fleets for cities of the future.
While shrinking a vehicle’s footprint can lower the impact of personal mobility, an alternative is to share vehicles among users. Globally, almost 80% of all transit commuters use a bus.22 Yet buses are typically not “sexy” and have been poorly leveraged. Modern renditions employ advanced vehicular technologies, including zero-emission propulsion, semi-autonomous driving, and Wi-Fi connectivity. Bus systems are being reimagined with Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridors mimicking metros, offering restricted-access lanes with priority right of way at traffic lights, stations with turnstiles and contactless card-based fare payment, and facilities designed for rapid ingress and egress. Compared to metros, buses can serve as a much lower investment option with improved flexibility. Curitiba, the capital of Brazil’s Paraná state, has successfully deployed BRT transit and has seen vehicular traffic on its streets decline by 30% since 1975, even as its population has doubled.23 Many U.S. cities including Boston, Los Angeles, Cleveland, and Seattle have benefited from investments in BRT corridors. In Seattle, bus ridership has grown at twice the rate of the population since 2002, and, through continued improvements, the city aims to reduce the percent of single-occupant vehicles on streets from 30% to 25%.24 Some cities, such as Helsinki and Singapore, have begun to deploy driverless eight-to 10-seater shuttles, opening the door to another dimension of innovation, utility, and efficiency.25
Higher-density corridors may employ light rail systems. Zurich, Switzerland, an affluent city with a population of about 300,000, has an effective system of light rail and buses that helps limit the level of personal car use to less than 30% for local trips. In contrast, Coventry in the U.K., with a similar population, lacks an equivalent mass transit system, resulting in personal car use for 75% of local trips.26
For cities that must manage very-high-density corridors for movement of people, few solutions match the space and energy efficiency of metros or subways. Hong Kong’s metro system is often benchmarked for scale, efficiency, and profitability. The systems in Tokyo, London, Singapore, and New York are highly utilized and effective. In 2015, China announced that it was doubling the length of metros in 23 cities. India is similarly constructing metros in 12 major cities.
A Connected Mobility Network
CHIP mobility architectures, like the internet, depend on a network for connectivity. Connectivity may be provided by physical infrastructure, such as the numerous routes from origin to destination, combined with transit hubs that allow the user to switch modes, such as a bike-share station located at a subway station.
Complementing physical connectivity, digital connectivity enables travelers to employ apps to assess and choose among various travel routes and modes. For such users, “mobility-on-tap” is the expectation. Even more impressive changes are possible when the benefits of connectivity are extended to the whole mobility system. A digitally connected traveler, for example, can plan a journey and then hail and pay for an Uber car with a single smartphone app. Car2go allows travelers to pick up a car in the vicinity and drop it off at their destination, not necessarily at a designated drop-off point. Turo’s peer-to-peer business model offers a renter the use of a fellow member’s car when that member has no use for the car. UberPOOL and BlaBlaCar use the power of smartphone apps and connectivity to allow two or more people to share a ride across town or even for weekend trips. Chariot Transit Inc. in San Francisco uses 10- to 15-seat vans that complement public transit with crowdsourced stops and routes determined by users. Mobility Mixx B.V. in the Netherlands offers a mobility card that bundles a range of mobility modes, from bicycles to public transport, taxis, and personal cars. The user has the option to use public transit for the daily commute, borrow a limousine for an important client meeting, and use a sporty convertible for a weekend escape to the beach.
These companies rely on (1) improving asset utilization; (2) sharing a journey among multiple users; and (3) promoting the use of the appropriate tool for the task. Much like a sculptor chips away extraneous material to the final form, these options seek to chip away wasted assets and resources.
Physical and digital connectivity both play important roles in generating efficiencies — they allow a traveler to link individual segments of a journey rather than undertaking the journey with a single compromise solution. However, travelers will be motivated to choose a journey with multiple connections only when the effort, cost, and time needed to make the connections are low. Hence, investments in both physical infrastructure connectivity and digital connectivity are vital.
A mobility system enhanced with heterogeneity of innovative transport modes, networked with physical and digital connectivity, generates a bewildering array of options for a user. Furthermore, each journey may involve one or more modes with connections along the route. The important task is to sort through the large volume of data of the various modes and their profiles and seek to match them, in real time, with the user’s preferences. Artificial intelligence systems are ideally suited to tackle this. These “robo-advisers” can recommend a few relevant options from the universe of mobility solutions that are available, seeking to maximize what John Hagel, co-chairman of Deloitte’s Center for the Edge, calls “return on mobility.”27 The return-on-mobility approach recognizes that any journey contributes value to the traveler, not only in getting to the destination but also in the experience along the way.
Each journey and each mode has its own unique signature of expense, stress, duration, level of convenience, ambience, degree of privacy, carbon emissions, and so on. Similarly, the traveler may have unique expectations and preferences for each journey. A Monday morning commute may call for different priorities than a weekend camping trip. Each user seeks to balance and optimize the associated rewards and costs. By 2016, several apps such as Citymapper and Daimler AG’s moovel were becoming available in Europe and the United States to offer some of this capability. They are as easy to use as the modern mapping tools we have become dependent upon, and they’re growing in utility each year.
CHIP Mobility: Characteristics
We have positioned CHIP mobility as an architecture and not as a particular solution. (See “The CHIP Mobility Framework.”) Given the diversity of cities and individuals, there can be no single “winning solution.” Rather, the architectural concept is pragmatic and flexible — it can be molded to suit various geographies and budgets, emphasizing those modes and technologies that offer local advantage. The sprawl of Los Angeles will require solutions different from those of compact Hong Kong. Singapore can deploy new systems more quickly than New York, which may need more time and effort to attract and mobilize popular support. Mumbai commuters may ill-afford solutions that make sense in London.
For any society, mobility needs to be inclusive — accessible to all segments of the population. The wide variety of modes embraced by CHIP mobility ensures that low-cost modes coexist with more expensive ones. Mobility architectures make extensive use of public spaces and assets and have economic and environmental consequences that affect entire communities. Hence local CHIP implementations must be guided by a combination of locally developed policies, regulations, investments, fees, and incentives to ensure appropriate alignment with societal goals. Accomplishing these goals will require engagement of public and private capital and will necessitate a blurring of the divide between public, shared, and private modes. Even as freedom of choice is preserved with variety, a combination of incentives and fees should ensure that each user pays a fair share of the cost of their chosen mobility solution.
The CHIP architecture is also dynamic. Like the internet, the architecture relies on redundant routes and modes and encourages entrepreneurship to conjure new solutions. The redundancies will also ensure that ineffective modes and solutions may be replaced as necessary. In each setting, the CHIP architecture must evolve through fluid adaptations, fostering innovation and experimentation.
The CHIP architecture promotes greener mobility through fair pricing modes based on impact to air quality, as well as use of energy, space, and public assets. It depends on policies to steer how people choose and use mobility. Fiscal penalties, such as the congestion fees imposed in London, or nonfiscal incentives, such as the privileged use of high-occupancy lanes for zero-emission vehicles, illustrate possible productive interplay between a physical mobility architecture and appropriate governing policies.
CHIP Architecture: Call for Action
The CHIP mobility architecture will require the auto industry to transform itself. Ian Robertson, a senior BMW leader, agrees that “the next 10 years are probably going to involve more change and more dynamics than we have seen in the last century.”28 Some automakers are already working on the larger canvas. BMW, Daimler, and Ford, for example, have started making investments well beyond the core of the auto industry. They have acquired stakes in businesses related to short-term rentals like car2go, app-hailed car services like Ride Now, app-hailed vanpools like Chariot, peer-to-peer car sharing such as Getaround, intercity bus services like FlixBus, apps for navigation and map data such as Here We Go, apps that assist drivers with parking such as JustPark, and even mobility robo-advisers such as moovel.
Traditional automakers now face competition from a formidable quarter — tech giants such as Google, Apple, Microsoft, Tencent, and Baidu. The convergence of technologies within consumer electronics and cars has driven both business sectors to covet preferential access to today’s digitally connected consumers. Google’s and Apple’s interests in autonomous driving and ride sharing are evidence of how they see their future role in mobility. As with smartphones, tech companies would presumably be delighted with a future scenario in which automakers provide low-value-added hardware platforms, leaving the tech giants the lion’s share of profits from services and value created by data and analytics. Automakers would likely prefer a different allocation of the profit pie.
Governments around the world have been actively involved in creating new highway infrastructure to increase productivity and economic growth. As urbanization increases, city administrations are called upon to develop and operate a broader set of levers including investments, policies, fiscal incentives, and levies to steer a sustainable and beneficial course for intracity commutes. Automakers that have traditionally been wary of inviting government involvement in transportation have come to recognize the contributions cities can make. According to Carlos Ghosn, chairman of the Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi alliance: “The biggest transformations will not take place inside our vehicles, or even inside our companies. Rather, they will take place on the stage of the world’s cities. Cities are facing challenges that could be solved, in part, by mobility solutions. To align technology, policy, and planning, automakers and cities must work as partners.”29
As city administrations formulate sound policies to steer the trajectory of mobility along paths aligned to societal priorities, they will find that the CHIP architecture weaves the concepts of connectivity, heterogeneity, intelligence, and personalization into a tapestry to deliver mobility that is faster, smarter, and greener.
If your business wants to attract more qualified traffic and build your brand, then you need to think about the client’s journey. Today’s consumers are more informed and have more options than ever before when it comes to what they buy and how they buy it.
When a customer buys your product or service, that transaction is only one part of their entire experience with your company. If you want to make the purchasing journey as easy as possible for your customers then, you need to think about every touch point that leads up to their purchase. This includes interactions with your company at various levels, including
Optimize website content and landing pages.
Excellent customer service.
Focused keyword research for Organic SEO and inbound marketing.
Integrated social media marketing and other channels.
There is so much data out there to consider if you want to optimize the customer journey of your audience.
This is a good and a bad thing because more data means more insight but it also means you can get overwhelmed.
Instead of relying on one-off data points to direct your customer journey research, your business can refer to the holistic experience of your clients through advanced IoT technology.
Today’s marketers know that all consumer-focused organizations will prosper, and it is the job of business operations to transform to allow for a customer-first mentality in all their marketing material.
Identifying touch points with IoT connectivity
This all sounds great, but what exactly is customer journey mapping?
A journey map is an illustrated representation of a client’s expectations, experiences, and reflections as it unfolds over time across multiple stages and touches points before, during and after they purchase your products or services.
Once you begin to visualize the journey map of your customers you will be able to understand their expectations and experiences through all phases of your business.
IoT marketing strategies will have a substantial impact on the retail and hospitality industries. Among these, I believe hotels will see a big push as IoT devices evolve and become more commonplace.
Hotels will see a significant increase in guest personalization as they leverage available data during the check-in, stay, and check-out process of their guests.
This data will be used to optimize user personas, and based on the visitors’ persona as well as their context; a hotel could dispense personalized, magnetic access cards with QR codes (the rapid response bar code), which, when scanned, could offer personalized offers. These same hotels can also use beacons to promote specials at their restaurants or offer exclusive deals based on preferences of individual guests.
Understand the customer lifecycle with IoT
As companies continue to gather more detailed information about their clients through connected devices, they will learn personal information about their audience.
The value of this information will be realized when they can overlay all information to understand the holistic experiences of their guests.
The value of this information will be realized when they can overlay all information to understand the holistic experiences of their guests.
The bigger picture will cover various stages of the customer lifecycle, and give your organization complete control above their power to produce marketing material for the products or services.
If your business wants to succeed in today’s competitive marketplace, then you need to use every competitive advantage you have at your disposal. One tool that you can leverage is IoT connectivity to build a comprehensive customer journey map and keep your customers at the center of your business initiatives.